Papers

Low Power Flow Computers

Author: Don W. GriffiesDownload File

Flow computers, like the computer industry, have been changing rapidly over the past few years. Faster, more powerful microprocessors, higher quality batteries and solar panels, improved electronics and new methods of remote communication now make it possible to automate field production and pipeline systems primarily using low power flow computers as the core hardware. Low […]

Automating Gas Measurement

Author: Richard L. ClineDownload File

Since the discovery of oil and gas and the advent of commercial conveniences, which use oil and gas, companies have been confronted with the need to accurately measure the oil and gas bought and sold in the marketplace. And, as usual, the technology available at the time was brought to bear on the measurement process. […]

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulation — Basic Principles, Design And Characteristics Of Regulators

Author: Bill HobsonDownload File

Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. It’s only […]

D.o.t. Requirements For The Transportation Of Sample Containers

Author: David J. FishDownload File

The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. […]

Electronic Calibrators

Author: Betsy MurphyDownload File

Electronic calibrators are fast becoming the benchmark for measurement and are replacing mechanical types of instruments for testing and calibration checks. Techniques, usage, and traceability requirements, and problems are changing as quickly as technology advances in the development of these instruments. Information concerning these issues is often outdated by the time the technician receives it. […]

Devices For Field Determintion Of H2o In Natural Gas

Author: Borys J. MychajliwDownload File

Gas quality has always been an important issue, but within the last several years it has become a critical issue for many pipeline companies. When gas prices hit historical high levels in the winter of 1999-2000, anybody who had the ability to sink a well and start pumping natural gas did so. Unfortunately, gas quality […]

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination

Author: David HaileyDownload File

This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some […]

Effects Of Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurements

Author: William JohansenDownload File

Natural gas often has some liquid content. The liquid may be water, hydrocarbons, or compressor oil. As the gas flows through an orifice meter is the gas being measured correctly? The measurement methods and calculations described in ANSI/API 2530 are for dry gas. Many researchers have studied the effect of entrained liquids on orifice measurement. […]

High Performance Flow Conditioners

Author: Michael P. SaundersDownload File

Accurate flow measurement is best achieved with an optimized flow profile. All those involved in the design, implementation and operation of a custody transfer station benefit from flow profile standards of accuracy that far exceed those of the past 40 years. By including flow conditioning in their latest metering station design standards, the American Petroleum […]

Verifying Gas Chromatograph Operation At Custody Transfer Locations

Author: Murray FraserDownload File

The on-line gas chromatograph (GC) has been widely used for natural gas quality analysis and energy measurement at custody transfer locations since the early 80’s. The energy measurement and relative density measurement provided by the GC can have a large effect on unaccounted for Gas because the gravity effects volume calculations and the heating value […]