Papers

Operations Of On-line Chromatographs

Author: Paul E. KizerDownload File

On-line Chromatography has at least two definitions today. The most common is that the Chromatograph, commonly known as a “GC,” is “on-line” when it extracts a sample from a continuously flowing line, injects this sample and analyzes it for composition, and then perhaps calculates BTU, SG, Relative Density, and/or Wobbe index or other parameters. This […]

Techniques Of Composite Sampling

Author: Wes PartainDownload File

Natural gas is sampled to balance plant or gathering systems and to determine its quality for custody transfer applications. Many contracts are written in such a manner to account for the quality of the gas. The quality of the gas is determined by the energy contained in it, which is measured in British Thermal Units […]

Techniques Of Gas Spot Sampling

Author: Royce MillerDownload File

The most important thing in taking a sample is where and how it is taken. A sample can be taken as a spot, composite, or as a continuous sample connected to a chromatograph

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry

Author: Steve WhitmanDownload File

In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know: Matter — anything that has mass and occupies space. Energy — the capacity to do work or transfer heat. Elements — substances that cannot be decomposed […]

Fundamentals Of Ultrasonic Flow Meters

Author: James W. BowenDownload File

This paper presents an outline of the operating principal and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principles and underlying equations are discussed as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3 path and […]

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement

Author: Don W. GriffiesDownload File

The Natural Gas Industry is utilizing electronic devices in many different and diverse areas. One of the areas that has seen a rapidly growing usage of Electronics is Gas Measurement. Thus many Gas Measurement Technicians have been forced to take on the responsibility of installing and operating Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) devices with little or […]

Fundamentals Of Coriolis Meters (for Gas Measurement

Author: Tom O’BanionDownload File

Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in liquid applications since the early 1980’s with an installed base or more than 350,000 units. Newer designs have shown greatly improved low-flow sensitivity, lower pressure drop, and immunity to noise; factors which now enable their successful use in gas-phase fluid applications. With more than 20,000 units on gas […]

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws

Author: John ChisholmDownload File

In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve […]

Requirements Of An Egm Editor

Author: R. Michael SquyresDownload File

The natural gas industry has adopted EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained. This has created the need for an electronic data management system. These systems, if not properly designed and implemented, could potentially render the entire process useless. Therefore, it is essential that the system […]