Field Testing By Transfer Proving An Explanation Of The Techniques And Procedures

Author: Ruben P. Sanchez, Larry WunderlickDownload File

Aristotle once said, “Science begins and ends with Measurement.” Without question, measurement is a function that truly influences the economics of the gas industry. This is true because the revenue of the industry, for the most part, is determined by the registration from meters. This is why it is said that meters are the “Cash […]

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering

Author: Ken EmbryDownload File

Throughout the oil and gas industry, there stems the need for accurate, economical measurement of process fluids. Orifice metering satisfies most flow measurement applications and is the most common flow meter in use today. The orifice meter, sometimes called the head loss flow meter, is chosen most frequently because of its long history of use […]

Fundamentals Of Orifice Recorders

Author: Micheal BealerDownload File

The American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit consisting of a primary and a secondary measurement device. The orifice meter body, tube and orifice plate are considered the primary measuring device. This primary device is equipped with pressure taps that allow for the hook-up of a secondary device to sense […]

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Meters

Author: Nicole FordDownload File

Natural gas measurement is the vertebrae of any natural gas utility. Without the ability to measure, it would be impossible to account for the flow of gas from receipt to delivery. Very much like an accountant that labors to keep the ledger balanced, a utility needs metering to balance the gas producer’s receipts against the […]

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters

Author: Ron L. StrongDownload File

Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through […]

Fundamental Principles Of Gas Turbine Meters

Author: Angela FloydDownload File

Gas Turbine Meters have developed greatly since their introduction to the U.S. in 1963. From the mechanically gear driven version, meters have developed into fully electronic designs and self-correcting models. Although these technological developments have greatly improved the application of the meter, the meters basic design and principles have remained very similar. As an inferential […]

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Safety

Author: Linton T. LipscombDownload File

Natural Gas: A combustible mixture of methane and higher hydrocarbons used chiefly as fuel and raw material. To safely produce natural gas and natural gas products, a basic understanding of the hazards of the material itself and the processes required to bring it to market is essential. Let’s start out with the hazards of natural […]

Fundamentals Of Insertion Turbine Meters

Author: Les BottomsDownload File

The insertion turbine meter is well suited for large pipeline measurement. It is presently used in many areas of the gas industry, such as compressor efficiency and surge control, pipeline leak detection, pacing odorizers and samplers, as well as checking pipeline throughput. The insertion turbine meter provides good accuracy, and offers the user cost saving […]

Periodic Inspections Of District Regulator & Relief Valves

Author: Jerry BowinsDownload File

Inspection of District Regulator Stations and over pressure protection devices are essential in complying with Federal and State Regulations. In order to understand the functions of a District Regulator, we must start with the City Gate Station. Some pipeline people call City Gates, Town Border Stations. City Gate Stations are where distribution companies purchase natural […]

Remote Meter Reading (methods Of Retrieving Data By Use Of Remote Devices)

Author: John SchnitzerDownload File

Remote devices for Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) have many common characteristics but vary depending on what kind of communication system is in place. A partial list of communication systems that current technology supports includes the following: • Telephone dial-inbound • Telephone dial-outbound • Cellular • Mobile radio • Fixed network radio • Pager systems • […]