Papers: 2015

Calculation Of Natural Gas Liquids Quantities

Author: Keith FryDownload File

There is no substitute for well maintained, properly installed, and properly performing measurement equipment. Provisions for measurement equipment installation, operation, and maintenance deliver the raw data required for those dealing with natural gas liquids (NGLs) to transact business. Then, this raw data can be adjusted or converted to values suitable for transactions to take place […]

Techniques Of Composite Sampling

Author: Marielle VerotDownload File

In today’s up and down, sometimes struggling but always competitive market, a producer of natural gas must strive to maximize their market value, and achieve the highest return of invested income. The fluctuations seen recently in pricing make this an increasingly important goal. In order to accomplish this goal one must ensure they are receiving […]

Operations Of Online Gas Chromatographs

Author: Shane HaleDownload File

The gas chromatograph (GC) is an integral component of the natural gas custody metering station and has a large impact on the accuracy of the fiscal flow calculation. For this reason it is imperative that you install, operate and maintain the GC with the goal of maximum reliability and accuracy.

Use Of Equations Of State And Equation Of State Software Packages

Author: Adam G. Hawley, Darin L. GeorgeDownload File

Determination of fluid properties and phase conditions of hydrocarbon mixtures is critical for accurate hydrocarbon measurement, representative sampling, and overall pipeline operation. Fluid properties such as compressibility and density are critical for flow measurement and determination of the hydrocarbon due point is important to verify that heavier hydrocarbons will not condense out of a gas […]

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas

Author: Marshall T. SchreveDownload File

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a gas composed of one Sulfur Atom and two Hydrogen Atoms. ;H2S is formed by the decomposition of organic matter and is therefore, found naturally in crude oil and natural gas deposits. H2S is a highly toxic, transarent, colorless and corrosive gas. Due to the toxic and caustic properties of this […]

Considerations For Sampling Wet, High Pressure & Supercritical Natural Gas

Author: Donald P. MayeauxDownload File

This paper discusses the problems encountered when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas for “on-line” BTU analysis, and provides solutions and comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagrams in the design and operation of a natural […]

Devices For Field Determination Of Water In Natural Gas

Author: Sam MillerDownload File

H2O vapor is an undesirable component of natural gas. It takes up space in the pipeline and provides no fuel value. In higher concentrations it can condense into liquid water in the pipeline and cause corrosion, especially in the presence of carbon dioxide or H2S. Liquid water can also cause damage to turbines. Because of […]

Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point

Author: Sohrab Zarrabian, Ph.D., Mahmood Moshfeghian, Ph.D.Download File

Extraction of natural gas from shale formations has increased the focus on determining the quality of the gas extracted and processed. One of the key attributes of natural gas during its various stages of processing is its “Hydrocarbon Dew point”. This figure refers to the temperature at which the gas stream undergoes a phase transition […]

Verifying Gas Chromatographs At Custody Transfer Locations

Author: Shane HaleDownload File

Verifying the correct operation and accuracy of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) is an integral part of a custody transfer metering system, and involves ensuring the accuracy of the analyzer at the time of testing, as well as confirming that the GC performed properly during the periods between validations and assessing the likelihood of continued proper […]

Effects Of Wet Gas Flow On Various Gas Orifice Plate Meters

Author: Josh Kinney and Richard StevenDownload File

Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards [1, 2, 3, 4] and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. […]