Papers: 2011

Calibration Standard Gases

Author: Fred DeAngeloDownload File

Calibration Standards are known concentrations of components of interest used to confirm or determine component concentrations in samples. Calibration standards are used for quality assurance, quality control,measurement and balance, quantitative sample analysis and custody transfer. They should be used anytime it is important to know the composition of your samples and to determine if your […]

Devices For Field Determination Of H2o In Natural Gas

Author: Sam MillerDownload File

H2O vapor is an undesirable component of natural gas. It takes up space in the pipeline and provides no fuel value. In higher concentrations it can condense into liquid water in the pipeline and cause corrosion, especially in the presence of carbon dioxide or H2S. Liquid water can also cause damage to the equipment utilizing […]

Lessons Learned From The Api Mpms, Chapter 14.1 Gas Sampling Research

Author: Darin L. GeorgeDownload File

Between 1999 and 2005, the Gas Technology Institute(GTI), the American Petroleum Institute (API), the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS), and the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) cosponsored an extensive natural gas sampling research program at the Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The results of this research provided a basis […]

Understanding Aga Report No. 10, Speed Of Sound In Natural Gas And Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases

Author: Jerry Paul Smith, Joel ClancyDownload File

The speed of sound in natural gas is the velocity a sound wave travels in the gas. There are a number of gas properties that affect the speed of sound and they include the composition of the gas, the pressure of the gas and the temperature of the gas. The American Gas Association Report No. […]

Micro Gas Chromatography For Liquid Petroleum Gass

Author: Amorin A., D’Agostaro L.,Diersche Y., Gonzalez, ADownload File

For years, micro GC analysis has been useful as a powerful tool for the fast and reliable analyses of natural gas and other gaseous matrices but, it is yet to prove its capabilities for liquid samples. In this paper, we present a a unique gasifying system for volatile liquid sample introduction in a micro GC. […]

Verifying Gas Chromatographs At Custody Transfer Locations

Author: J. David HaileyDownload File

Chromatography is a Greek term meaning chroma color and graphein to draw and will encompass several analytical techniques to physically separate various components in an individual sample so they can be individually measured and assigned values. As these individual gas constituents values are calculated to determine an overall value such as heating value or relative […]

D.o.t. Requirements For The Transportation Of Sample Cylinders

Author: David J. FishDownload File

The United States Department of Transportation(D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As […]

Use Of Equations Of State (eos) Software

Author: Donald P. MayeauxDownload File

Proper sample conditioning is essential to providing are presentative sample of natural gas to the analyzer. Sample conditioning consists of extracting a sample from a process stream, transporting it to an analyzer, and conditioning it so that it is compatible with the analyzer. Conditioning generally consists of controlling the gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate. […]

Considerations For Sampling Wet, High Pressure, And Supercritical Natural Gas

Author: Donald P. Mayeaux, Shannon M. BromleyDownload File

This paper discusses the problems encountered when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas for on-line BTU analysis, and provides solutions and comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagrams in the design and operation of a natural […]

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination

Author: David HaileyDownload File

This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some […]