Papers: 2007

A Review Of The Revisions To Api 14.3 / Aga 3 – Part 2

Author: Tom CatheyDownload File

In April of 2000, revisions to the specification and installation requirements for orifice meters was published by the American Gas Association in the form of the AGA Report No. 3 – Part 2, Fourth Edition. This purblication is also correctly known as API 14.3, Part 2, ANSI/API 14.3, Part 2-2000 and GPA 8185, Part 2. […]

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement

Author: Radhey S. ThakralDownload File

The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of natural gas industry from a system […]

A New Perspective On Measurement The Impact Of Measurement In A Changing Business Environment

Author: David WoffordDownload File

The measurement of hydrocarbons has evolved significantly through the years, from both a technical and business application perspective. Developments and advances in technology have made the measurement of hydrocarbons more precise, efficient and available. Changes in the energy business environment have placed the measurement of hydrocarbons into a more significant role within organizational and industry […]

Freeze Protection For Natural Gas Pipeline Systems And Measurement Instrumentation

Author: David J. FishDownload File

The failure to supply natural gas upon demand can cause irreparable damage to a company’s corporate image in the 21st Century. Consistent and continuous pipeline operations are key and critical factors in today’s natural gas pipeline industry. The competitive nature of the business, together with the strict rules and regulations of natural gas supply, mandate […]

Electronic Calibrators

Author: Roger ThomasDownload File

Pressure calibration is as important today as it has been for a very long time, but the way calibration is done and the equipment used to do it has changed drastically. In the past it was a standard practice to use a primary standard for pressure calibration. That standard was normally a dead weight tester […]

Advance Communication Designs

Author: Bob HalfordDownload File

We say Advanced Wireless Data Radio Communication Systems Design Process not because this is a more indepth and more technical process, but because the systems involved are complex in nature and must be carefully designed and programmed. If anything, what I want to do is teach you a more simplified approach and technique to design […]

Understanding Dot/psm Operator Qualification Program

Author: Britt McNeelyDownload File

The Operator Qualification (OQ) rule has greatly impacted pipeline operations for all major pipeline system operators. For Panhandle Energy, the efforts to satisfy all segments of the rule have required a significant investment in money and manpower, with many changes to most aspects of field operations. Several key efforts are worthy of further explanation concerning […]

Scada And Telemetry In Gas Transmission Systems

Author: Edward H. SmythDownload File

SCADA systems provide for safe, reliable, semi-efficient operation of gas transmission systems. Advanced applications and interfaces to business systems provide the keys for highly profitable operation. This paper introduces the basic building blocks of the SCADA system, including field devices. The SCADA host and advanced applications are discussed in detail. The paper concludes with a […]

Aga Calculations – 1985 Standard Vs 1992 Standard

Author: Brent BerryDownload File

This paper is intended to help bridge the gap between the Old AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1985) and the New AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1992). As such the paper begins with a background section aimed at assisting those who are mostly familiar with the factored form of the orifice metering equation

Pulsation Effects On Orifice Metering Considering Primary And Secondary Elements

Author: Robert J. McKeeDownload File

The use of orifices for commercial flow measurement has a long history dating back more than 70 years. Orifices are extensively used in the United States natural gas, petroleum and petro-chemical industries and are important as one of the most practical ways to meter large volumes of gas flow. These meters are very reliable and […]