Papers: 2006

Periodic Inspection Of District Regulator And Relief Valves

Author: John JohnsonDownload File

Regulators and Over Pressure Protection Devices (OPPD) must be inspected in accordance to Federal and State Law and Company policy. Over pressure protection devices are devices that protect the downstream piping in the event of a regulator failure. These devices include a relief valve, a monitor regulator, or a positive pressure shut off. In Texas, […]

“unaccounted Gas Study”

Author: Jay ShifletDownload File

In the Gas Distribution business Unaccounted Gas is referred to by various names or terms such as: Lost and Unaccounted-For, LUG, L&U, and UAF. In simplest terms, Unaccounted Gas is the result of the formula “gas receipts minus gas deliveries”. For the Measurement Group the process amounts to a “gas inventory reconciliation” based on the […]

H2s Detection And Determination

Author: Ray N. AdcockDownload File

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a gas composed of one Sulfur Atom and two Hydrogen Atoms. H2S is formed by the decomposition of organic matter and is therefore, found naturally in crude oil and natural gas deposits. H2S is a highly toxic, transparent, colorless and corrosive gas. Due to the toxic and caustic properties of this […]

Various Methods Can Be Used To Verify Gas Chromatograph At Custody Transfer Locations

Author: Charlie CookDownload File

Most “On-line” gas chromatographs operate for long periods of time without developing biased or even outright unacceptable measurement. Therefore, most users undertake system- wide performance testing infrequently. But as rising gas prices demand increased scrutiny on measurement data – flow volume, energy content, and often hydrocarbon dewpoint analysis — many measurement staffs may search for […]

Operations Of On-line Chromatographs

Author: Charlie CookDownload File

Since the early eighties it has become common in the United States, and elsewhere in the world, for natural gas to be bought and sold based on the amount of energy delivered. The quantity of energy delivered is calculated by multiplying the gas volume per unit time by the heating value (BTU) per unit volume

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination

Author: David HaileyDownload File

This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology

Fundamentals In Lng

Author: Tom QuineDownload File

The following discusses the historical use and future opportunities relating to natural gas, LNG and geological gas storage. New opportunities are presented by the non-linear 23.5 tcf/y US gas use and declining production. This fact has created a significant need for LNG imports and LNG distributed assets in the US. In addition it has created […]

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters

Author: John GorhamDownload File

The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic, and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large-volume […]

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Meters

Author: John MichalakDownload File

Rotary gas meters have been in use for over sixty years in the natural gas distribution industry. Over the years, the construction has switched from heavy cast iron bodies to lighter, high strength aluminum. Advances in manufacturing techniques such as CNC machining centers have enhanced the measurement performance of the rotary meter. Traditionally rotary meters […]

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering

Author: Bob CarlsonDownload File

Throughout the oil and gas industry, there stems the need for accurate and economical measurement of process fluids and natural gas. Orifice Meters, sometimes referred to as Orifice Fittings, satisfy most flow measurement applications and are the most common flow meter type in use today. The Orifice Meter, sometimes also called a head loss flow […]