Papers: 2002

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry

Author: Steve WhitmanDownload File

In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know:

Techniques Of Natural Gas Spot Sampling

Author: David J. FishDownload File

The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. Sampling can be accomplished by primarily three techniques; spot, continuous composite or continuous on-line sampling systems. The various spot sampling methods that are available and the implementation of these […]

Terminology Used In Instrument Accuracy

Author: Rick WilliamsDownload File

The purpose of this paper is to offer a brief explanation and discussion of many key terms used in describing instrument accuracy. The terms included within this discussion are most commonly used for defining performance standards with primary sensing elements typically used in the measurement of flow, level pressure and temperature instruments. Many of the […]

Problems Unique To Offshore Measurement

Author: Wayne T. LakeDownload File

As the worldwide demand for oil and gas forces offshore exploration into waters off the continental shelves into depths of over a mile deep, capital expense spending (CapEx) and production operation expense (OpEx) budgets are slashed and the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) requirements as well as some companies’ goals for a ‘greener image’ raises […]

Development Of A Standard Gas Measurement Data Model In Scada Systems

Author: Chris J. SmithDownload File

In large-scale gas SCADA systems, the variety and extent of field equipment requires a new look at the development of data concentrators, common data models, and broker based messaging for connection to the enterprise. Scanned devices have a limited range of data structures which must be aggregated and normalized to an ‘open’ vendor independent model […]

Understanding Dot/pam Operator Qualification Program

Author: Jesus RamosDownload File

After a decade of deliberation between government and the pipeline industry, the action of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking requiring qualification for individuals performing covered tasks on a pipeline facility is a reality. The synergistic efforts of the members of the Regulation Negotiation Committee resulted in the authoring of an acceptable proposed rule, Qualification of […]

Proper Testing Of Odorant Concentration Levels

Author: Paul D. WehnertDownload File

Proper odorant monitoring is required to keep natural gas utilities under compliance with federal and state regulations. These monitoring requirements are generally handled through a combination of events including; injection rate calculations, customer complaint calls, routine service personnel tests, odor concentration tests and chromatographic analysis. In the world today it is critical to have appropriate […]

Techniques Of Composite Sampling

Author: Royce MillerDownload File

The most important thing in taking a sample is where and how it is taken. A sample can be taken as a spot, composite, or as a continuous sample connected to a chromatograph

From Pen Tip To Volume Statement

Author: David PulleyDownload File

Accurate and reliable gas measurement depends on a combination of efforts from two groups of people. First, we have the field personnel. They have the responsibility of seeing that a readable chart is produced and that all information pertinent to volume calculation is supplied to our next group, which is the office personnel. This group […]

Requirements Of An Egm Editor

Author: R. Michael SquyresDownload File

The natural gas industry’s adoption of EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained. This has created the need for an electronic data management system. These systems, if not properly designed and implemented, could potentially render the entire process useless. Therefore, it is essential that the system […]