Papers: 2017

Operation Of On-line Gas Chromatographs

Author: Bill FrazierDownload File

Gas Chromatographs serve as a basis for measurement of individual Natural Gas Components to determine the BTU or Energy Value of the Natural Gas. The use of “On-Line” Gas Chromatographs enables the end user to know 100% of the time the energy value of the gas flowing through their system. It is much like using […]

Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point

Author: Sohrab ZarrabianDownload File

Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HDP) remains one of the key quality parameters of natural gas streams. Its determination is needed for operational and safety considerations, as well as to satisfy tariffs and regulations in US and overseas pipeline operations. The recent development of shale gas in US has added to the need for accurate and consistent […]

Principles Of Odorization

Author: Stephen WestDownload File

Natural Gas has no innate odor, color, or taste; therefore, odorization is one of the most important aspects to safely transporting natural gas to customers in a distribution system. As demand for natural gas rises as does the technology involved in odorization. The first odorization occurred in Germany in the 1880s by a German scientist […]

Effects Of Wet On Orifice Meters

Author: Josh Kinney & Richard StevenDownload File

Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards [1, 2, 3, 4] and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. […]

Dew Point Wet Gas And Its Effect On Natural Gas Sampling Systems

Author: Philip A LawrenceDownload File

Wet gas measurement is becoming widely used in the modern oil and gas market place. The effect of entrained liquid in gas and its impact on measurement systems is being researched world-wide by various laboratories and JIP working groups. The impact can be very significant financially. Hydrocarbon Dew Point can also effect the financial operation […]

Devices For Field Determination Of H2o In Natural Gas

Author: Sam MillerDownload File

H2O vapor is an undesirable component of natural gas. It takes up space in the pipeline and provides no fuel value. In higher concentrations it can condense into liquid water in the pipeline and cause corrosion, especially in the presence of carbon dioxide or H2S. Liquid water can also cause damage to turbines. Because of […]

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas

Author: Marshall T. SchreveDownload File

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a gas composed of one Sulfur Atom and two Hydrogen Atoms. H2S is formed by the decomposition of organic matter and is therefore, found naturally in crude oil and natural gas deposits. H2S is a highly toxic, transparent, colorless and corrosive gas. Due to the toxic and caustic properties of this […]

D.o.t. Requirements For The Transportation Of Sample Cylinders

Author: David J. FishDownload File

The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. […]

Considerations For Sampling Wet, High Pressure, And Supercritical Natural Gas

Author: Donald P. Mayeaux, Shannon M. BromleyDownload File

This paper discusses the problems encountered when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas for “on-line” BTU analysis, and provides solutions and comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagrams in the design and operation of a natural […]

Auditing Gas Analysis Laboratories

Author: Joe LandesDownload File

The data produced by Gas Chromatograph (GC) laboratories is used for many purposes, including product specification, accounting, safety and environmental compliance issues. The accuracy of this data has direct impact on all of these areas. Auditing laboratories responsible for producing this data is prudent business practice. The audit will provide a means of process improvement, […]