Papers: 2014

Advances In Natural Gas Sampling Technology

Author: Donald MayeauxDownload File

The monetary value of natural gas is based on its energy content and volume. The energy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy.

Principals Of Odorization

Author: Kenneth S. ParrottDownload File

In the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source in the United States, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that doesn’t have natural gas provided as an energy source. The methods of […]

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted-for Gas Program

Author: John McDanielDownload File

Many (likely most) gas pipeline companies struggle with lost-and-unaccounted-for-gas (L&U) and it can be a significant cost to their bottom line as shown below. As shown in this inset, by reducing L&U from 0.6 percent to .25 percent, a typical company with a 2 BCF daily throughput could save Over 10 million dollars annually based […]

Auditing Gas Laboritories

Author: Joe LandesDownload File

The data produced by Gas Chromatograph (GC) laboratories is used for many purposes, including product specification, accounting, safety and environmental compliance issues. The accuracy of this data has direct impact on all of these areas. Auditing laboratories responsible for producing this data is prudent business practice. The audit will provide a means of process improvement, […]

Calibration Standard Gases

Author: Gina MastrantoniDownload File

In today’s natural gas industry, it is imperative that the standards used to calibrate are made to the utmost quality. Calibration standards are mixtures of known concentrations of components used to confirm or determine concentrations in samples. Calibration standards are needed for quality assurance/quality control, measurement and balance, quantitative sample analysis, and custody transfer. Preparation, […]

Effects Of Wet Gas Flow On Gas Orifice Plate Meters

Author: Josh Kinney & Richard StevenDownload File

Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards [1, 2, 3, 4] and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. […]

D.o.t. Requirements For The Transportation Of Sample Cylinders

Author: David J. FishDownload File

The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. […]

Techniques For Natural Gas Spot Sampling

Author: David J. FishDownload File

The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. Sampling can be accomplished by primarily three techniques; spot, continuous composite or continuous on-line sampling systems. The various spot sampling methods that are available and the implementation of these […]

Considerations For Sampling Wet, High Pressure, And Supercritical Natural Gas

Author: Donald P. Mayeaux, Shannon M. BromleyDownload File

This paper discusses the problems encountered when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas for “on-line” BTU analysis, and provides solutions and comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagrams in the design and operation of a natural […]

Use Of Equations Of State And Equation Of State Software Packages

Author: Adam G. Hawley, Darin L. GeorgeDownload File

Determination of fluid properties and phase conditions of hydrocarbon mixtures is critical for accurate hydrocarbon measurement, representative sampling, and overall pipeline operation. Fluid properties such as compressibility and density are critical for flow measurement and determination of the hydrocarbon due point is important to verify that heavier hydrocarbons will not condense out of a gas […]