Papers: 2011

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry

Author: Steve WhitmanDownload File

In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know:

Field Inspection And Calibrationof Volume Correcting Devices

Author: George E. Brown IIIDownload File

Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes. The instruments save a company capitol and operating costs because they can record or integrate volumes at pressures and temperature above the normal pressure-base conditions specified in contracts for volume calculation. This allows the […]

Unaccounted Gas Study In Distribution Networks

Author: Jay ShifletDownload File

In the Gas Distribution business Unaccounted Gas is referred to by various names or terms such as: Lost and Unaccounted-For, LUG, L&U, and UAF. In simplest terms, Unaccounted Gas is the result of the formula gas receipts minus gas deliveries. For the Measurement Group the process amounts to a gas inventory reconciliation based on the […]

Determining Proper Odorization Levels

Author: Roy MontemaranoDownload File

Over 300 people died in an explosion on March 18, 1937 in a New London, Texas public school building. The natural gas that was being delivered to the school building was not odorized.

Overview Of Aga 7 Revision

Author: Angela Floyd, Dairy AshfordDownload File

Just when you thought you knew everything there was to know about Turbine meter measurement, wham, out comes a revised AGA 7 standard. Now those basic principles are all still valid but maybe those operating practices we have built into our operating procedures need a little review. Rather than proceed as generations have done before […]

Field Testing By Transfer Proving

Author: Larry K. WunderlichDownload File

Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where bell prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters.

Periodic Inspection Of Regulators And Relief Valves

Author: James M. DoyleDownload File

Inspections and tests on regulators and relief valves are a Department of Transportation (DOT) compliance rule. The sections within the DOT manual stating the rule include 192.351 through 192.359, 192.751, 192.479, 192.481, 192.739, and 192.741. Keep in mind these rules are the minimum required tests. Your company or governing regulatory agency may be more stringent […]

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements

Author: Edgar B. BowlesDownload File

This paper is intended to provide meter station designers with a basic methodology for selection of an appropriate flow meter (or meters) for a given application. Since many applications require that a meter station operate over a broad range of flow rates or loads, an example is provided on how to address system range ability […]

Principals Of Odorization

Author: Kenneth S. ParrottDownload File

In the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source in the United States, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that doesn’t have natural gas as a energy source.

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted For – Gas Program

Author: John McDanielDownload File

Many (likely most) gas pipeline companies struggle with lost and- unaccounted-for-gas (L&U) and it can be a significant cost to their bottom line as shown below.